Pablo Picasso

Pablo Picasso Biography

Pablo Picasso was born in 1881, October 25 in the town Málaga. His christened full was Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso That were the sequence of the names of admirer holy men and his family relatives. Picasso - it was the maiden surname his mother which he took for himself. His father had name José Ruiz, it was too ordinary and at the same time he was also an artist.

Pablo was shown his drawing talent since early childhood. He was studied his father since 7 years. He had been instructed to draw paws of pigeons on the father`s pictures. But once his father charged to complete the picture of the quite large still life and he was surprised his son`s technique so much, that he by legend left off own painting.

When Pablo was 13 he brilliantly entered in the Barcelona Academy of Art. The examiners were surprised his mastership and he was taken in Academy spite of his adolescent age. His father and uncle settled to send Pablo in the San Fernando Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Madrid known as the forward School of Art in Spain. So Pablo came to Madrid in 1897 when he was 16. However classes at School of Art lasted not a long time (less than one year) he was captured with charm of style Madrid life and studying works of the impressing artists those days: Diego Velázquez, Francisco Goya and particularly El Greko. During the period of his education in Madrid Picasso made the first tour in Paris. That city was the confident European capital of art. Pablo visited all museums there during some months and studied masterpieces of the great painters: Delacroix, Toulouse-Lautrec, van Gogh, Gauguin and many others. Also he was keen on Phoenician and Egyptian Art, Gothic sculpture, Japan drawing. Pablo was interested absolutely all.

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February 1901 in Madrid Picasso learned that his close friend Carlos Casagemas had died. May 5 1901 the artist visited Paris for the second time; everything reminded him about Casagemas, with whom he had discovered the French capital not so long ago. Pablo stayed in the room where Carlos had spent his last days, started an affair with Germaine, because of whom Carlos had committed suicide, and palled around with the same people. One can only imagine how hard it was for Picasso to cope with the anguish of bereavement, guilt and the imminence of death... It constituted the ground for the 'Blue period'.

The 'Rose period' is represented more full of life tones sienna and pink, and also steady topics of pictures - clowns, vagabond actors , acrobats. Charmed with comedians which became the models his picture, he often visited the Circus Medrano. During that time a clown was his favorite personage. In 1904 Picasso met a model Fernande Olivier who inspired his for creation many important pictures of that time. They lived in the centre of Paris' bohemianism and Mecca of painters - in Le Bateau-Lavoir. That strange half-destroyed building with dark stairs and winding corridors was home for various company: poets, traders, yardmen. There in an atmosphere of absolute poverty and on a verge of misery and in indescribable creative chaos Picasso drew his Fernande and searched for his own way.
In 1906 Picasso drew a portrait of Gertrude Stein. He redrew it about 80 times and by her remembrance finally Picasso said her furiously: 'I stop to see you when I look at you.' and he discontinued his work. It was the turning-point in his creation and from there he began his way from representations separate people to representation a man as the man and to a shape like self-contained structure. Picasso needed new impressions for receipt new creation energy. The since opening of that time the whole layer of the African culture became an impulse for creation of the artist. He especially was interested African culture and masks, he reckoned that they had magic power and he had found in them the sensual simplicity of shapes.

Cézanne proclaimed: 'Nature is a thing that cannot be reproduced, but must be represented by something else – by color'. He was echoed by Picasso: 'Cubism has never been anything but art for the sake of art, which excludes all concepts of immaterial reality. Color is important only insofar as it helps to portray volumes'. They distinguish the "Cubism" period of Picasso on some steps: "cézanne cubism" characterized "cézanne" tones: sienna, light-green, brown, but more washed-out, muddy with using of the simple geometric shapes which a picture is built from. "Analytic" cubism: a subject is separated on small parts which are distinctly detached one from another and the subject form is faded on the canvas. On the step of "synthetic" cubism pictures of Picacco had the decorative and contrast character. They were generally represented with still life of the different subjects: musical instruments, music, bottles of vine, smoke pipes, dishes, posters.

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Despite underestimating the most of people Picasso's pictures they are bought very well. At last the poverty existence is ended, Pablo and Fernande moved in 1909, September into the spacious and light workshop on the street Clichy. Picasso, of course, didn't forget to convey his compulsory chaos: fancy bottles and vases, guitars, an old carpet, pictures of his favourite artists - Matisse, Cézanne, Russo, the collection of African masks. He always said he felt horror from harmony and good taste. He bought things which he liked, didn't worry how they looked.

In 1911, Autumn Picasso parted with Fernande. His new muse became Eva (Marcelle Humbert). They lived together and he created his own the cubism works on Montparnasse and in Avignon. Then were become the painful years: the World War I, a mobilization and parting withy many friends, a sudden illness and tragic Eva's death.

In 1917, Spring a poet Jean Cocteau collaborated with Sergei Diaghilev had proposed to Picasso to make sketches and decorations for a future ballet. The artist went to work in Rome where he fell in love in one dansers of the Diaghilev's group - Olga Khokhlova. They were married in 1918 and their son Paul was born in 1921. That time the Picasso's pictures were very far from cubism, they had clear and intelligible shapes, light tones, correct faces. Picasso was hard criticized for interchange of style as before for cubism. He had answered those accusations in his interview 'Every time, when I want something to say I say it in such manner, which accordance with mine sensation it has to say.'

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'Beauty will be convulsive or won't be at all' - said André Breton, an establisher of Surrealizm as the direction in art, set his goal achievement true depths of the art creature, due to penetrating in the world of dreams and involuntary. In an article on Picasso Breton analyzed the causes of own admiration of the artist and concluded that 'reality is not limited to what we see', and that 'artist had to grasp the model, or the 'internal concept'. The numerous portraits of Marie-Thérèse Walter that make up the surrealist legacy of Picasso can be called the understanding of the model. It was in 1927, one cold day Picasso had met 17 years old Marie-Thérèse. He had bought for her the castle Château de Boisgeloup and she became there his the only model and heroine of some his known pictures. In 1935 Marie-Thérèse had gave birth to daughter Maya, but before 1936 Picasso parted with them, also he wasn't devoted with Olga Khokhlova until her death in 1955.

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Since 1930s in Picasso's creature was appeared his key aspect and image - a Bull, Minotaur. The artist created the series of works with this personage and he traced his own point of view about the Minotaur' myth. For him the Bull, Minotaur was the destructive power, war and death. He well known Picasso's picture Guernica (1937) became an apogee of development that theme. Guernica is a small town of the Basques on the north of Spain, practically destroyed with the German aviation in 1937, 26 April. This large monochromatic (black, white, gray) picture was shown at first in the Pavilion of the Spanish Republic in Paris during the World Exhibition. One day the German officers had made a search of Picasso's house and a Nazi looked at the table photo of Guernica asked : "Did you do that?". "No, you did." answered the artist. Picaso met his new muse and mistress Dora Maar in 1936. She was a nervous and unbalanced woman, often crying and arranged histerics. That's why so many portraits of "crying women" are among of the paintings of the artist. Thanks to her we can follow up the process of creating Guernica. The series of monsters about Franco was created in the same period (in 1936 Picasso had supported the Republicans and spoke against adherents of Franco) and many pictures with the close themes.

After the war, the artist's work for obvious reasons becomes more bright and joyful. Besides, there is a new love in his life. In 1946 Picasso had met a young artist - woman Françoise Gilot and came over with her in the castle Grimaldy. Soon she gave him a son Claude and a daughter Paloma. He often paints Françoise with children and the exquisite decorativeness of these paintings emphasizes the atmosphere of comfort and family idyll. They have lived together for almost 10 years in the south of France. But in 1953 she ran away from Picasso with both children through his difficult character and permanent infidelity; it was hard for him that parting and it reverberated on his work of that period. An ugly old pygmy and young beautiful girl are contrasted as a slapstick in many drawings with Indian ink. Even at the age of 70 Picasso continues to work a lot. He constantly experiments and tries new techniques. Once after visiting the pottery fair in Vallauris, he tries himself in this new craft and falls in love with ceramics for a long time. He spends a lot of time in the ceramic workshop of Madura, creating a variety of plates, vases, jugs, figurines. In the same place, in 1953 the artist meets his new beloved. In 1961 80-years old Picasso had married 34-years old Jacqueline Roque. She had inspired him for series of picture where everyone can see her chiselled profile sphinx. He had bought a villa in Cannes for himself and herself. She remained the last and loyal to Picasso woman. She took care of his health when he was ill, blind and hard of hearing till his death.

Picasso died in 1973, April 8. He was 92 - years old multimillionaire and buried near his own castle Vauvenargues. He left more than 80,000 works (another information approximately 20,000). He said about Death: 'I think about Death all time, it is as a woman who will never leave me'. In 1970 the Picasso Museum was opened in Barcelona (the pictures for that museum were given in possession by himself) and in 1985 with helping his heir apparents was founded the Picasso Museum in Paris, counted more than 200 pictures, 150 sculptures and some thousands drawings, collages, prints, documents. The Picasso's creature had been influenced on developing of Art and Culture of XX century. And on the world auctions before nowadays are searched and sat out for sale new and new little known works of famous artist from his huge heritage.